METODI SPERIMENTALI PER LA FISICA DELLE PARTICELLE ELEMENTARI

Teaching in italian
METODI SPERIMENTALI PER LA FISICA DELLE PARTICELLE ELEMENTARI
Teaching
Subject area
FIS/01
Reference degree course
PHYSICS
Course type
Master's Degree
Credits
7.0
Teaching hours
Frontal Hours: 49.0
Academic year
2022/2023
Year taught
2022/2023
Course year
1
Language
ITALIAN
Curriculum
ASTROFISICA,FISICA SPERIMENTALE DELLE INTERAZIONI FONDAMENTALI
Reference professor for teaching
VENTURA Andrea
Location
Lecce

Teaching description

A good knowledge of classical electrodynamics and special relativity is essential. Basic concepts of quantum mechanics are recommended. Some notions of particle physics might facilitate the comprehension, but are not strictly necessary.

Short introduction to modern nuclear and subnuclear physics. Particle accelerators: linear accelerators, cyclotrons, synchrotrons, synchrotron light. Semiconductors detectors. Detector systems: trackers, calorimeters, particle identification, trigger, data acquisition. Calorimetry. Examples of experiments in particle physics and astroparticle physics. Examples of applications to nuclear physics. Can we say something about detecting quantum gravity?

The student acquires the basic knowledge to understand the functioning of the instrumentation and the methods which are typically employed in nuclear and subnuclear physics.

Lecture

Oral examination

Accelerators

Historical accelerators: Van der Graaf and tandem. Linear accelerators. Cyclotrons, synchrocyclotrons and isocronous cyclotrons.

Decoupling of longitudinal and transverse modes. Dipoles. Quadrupoles. Transport matrices. Hills equation and its solutions in terms of the Twiss parameters. Betatron function and transverse emittance.

Effects causing deviations from the ideal orbit. Quadrupole errors and tune variations. Closed orbit, dipole errors and integer resonances. Momentum compaction factor and dispersion function. Natural chromaticity. Sextupoles. Resonances from magnet effects. Transverse-longitudinal couplings.

Longitudinal dynamics. Relativistic transition. Radiofrequency cavities. Synchrotron oscillations. Bunch structure. Acceleration. Phase inversion at the relativistic transition.

Solution of Maxwell equations in covariant form: retarded potentials. Lienard-Wiechert expression for the radiation potential emitted by a moving charge. Derivation of the electromagnetic field from the Lineard-Wiechert potential. Relativistic generalization of Larmor's formula: linear acceleration vs circular acceleration.

Computation of the angular spectrum of synchrotron light. Computation of the energy spectrum and polarization states of synchrotron light. Wigglers and undulators.

Examples of accelerators: electrostatic machines, famous accelerators. The CERN accelerators complex. Future colliders. The ESRF synchrotron.

 

Semiconductor detectors

Band structure of solids. Calculation of the density of charge carriers. Calculation of the chemical potential. Mass action law. Semiconductor materials and their use in radiation detection: silicon, diamond, germanium, high-Z materials.

Doping. The pn junction. Junction capacitance. Johnson-Nyquist noise. Biased pn junction, single sided pn-junction, leakage current. Small pixel effect. The MOS structure.

Strip detectors. Pixel detectors. Hybrid vs monolithic. Typical pixel functionalities.

Examples of application: X-ray computed tomography with spectral resolution, other examples.

Silicon photomultipliers.

 

Spectrometry and tracking

Measurement of momentum from the sagitta. Influence of multiple scattering and resolution. 

Alignment techniques.

Fit to circular trajectory: the Chernov-Oskorov solution and the Karimaki solution.

The Kalman filter.

 

Calorimetry

Electromagnetic showers. Differences between e/p and gamma showers. Hadronic showers and the role of the pi0.

Homogeneous and sampling calorimeters. Radiation length. Moliere radius. Interaction length. Pre-shower detectors. Effect of soft photons and neutrons on the sampling fraction.

Linearity of response. Quenching, saturation and the Texas tower effect. Containment. Components of the resolution of a calorimeter.

Compensation of a hadronic calorimeter. Dual readout.

 

Particle identification

Time of flight. Transition radiation.  Cherenkov light.

 

Particle detector systems

General purpose detectors. Trigger and data acquisition. 

The LHC experiments, with details on the ATLAS detector. Techniques and experiments for detecting neutrinos. Cosmic ray experiments, with details on the CTA UV cameras. 

Examples of detectors for physics beyond the standard model: dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay, axions.

 

Detection of gravitational waves

Einstein equations. Linearized solutions and the TT gauge. Properties of GW. Sources of GW and the quadrupole formalism. 

GW emitted by a binary system. Luminosity. Coalescence. Signals from typical sources.

Detection by means of resonant masses. Interferometers. Laser power. Resonant cavities and dual recycling. Laser stability. Radiation pressure, quantum limit, mirror suspension and gravitational noise.

Example of GW experiments. How to extract information from a GW waveform.

The material of the class references several textbooks and scientific papers. When treating each topic, the teacher will make sure to point the students to the proper literature.

Semester
Second Semester (dal 27/02/2023 al 09/06/2023)

Exam type
Optional

Type of assessment
Oral - Final grade

Course timetable
https://easyroom.unisalento.it/Orario

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